Document Type

Original Study


The purpose of this paper is building and applying the arbitral leadership scale for volleyball referees in Iraq. The researchers noticed, through their observation and living with the reality of volleyball referees' performance in Iraq, that there is a discrepancy and sometimes fluctuation in the level of arbitration in the level of volleyball referees (arbitral leadership) between one match and another and between one game and another, as well as in some decisions taken, which affects the match's results. He attributed this to the presence of several factors, including a weakness in the referee's level or lack of experience, and he sees this as a problem that must be studied to determine how much the referee has from the arbitral leadership. Therefore, the researcher decided to participate in this study to determine the level of arbitration for volleyball referees in Iraq to advance and improve the reality of arbitration in Iraq.