Document Type

Original Study

Retraction Notice

This article has been retracted at the request of the authors.

Dr. Ikram Masmoudi from the University of Delaware has raised a conflict of interest concern regarding the article "Trauma Reverberations: A Study of Selected Novels". Upon discussion with the corresponding author, Dr. Intisar Khaleel, she confirmed the occurrence of an honor mistake. After a meeting between the two authors, it has been decided that the article will be retracted to maintain the integrity and credibility of our publication. Thank you for your understanding and cooperation in this matter.


Trauma is typically associated with both physical and mental traumas created by tremendous external forces that enslave both the conscious and unconscious minds. The terrible experiences of women produced by numerous strong forces, such as battle, seduction, abuse, incarceration, and so on, are repeated. Women's lives are haunted by nightmares, hallucinations, and other sorts of traumatic symptoms when terrible memories of the past are purposefully buried. It is, nonetheless, possible to use story to solve difficulties. In actuality, there are two pillars to this technique: a mending device and a "bearing witness" device. Through the process of coding and narrating, women's individual traumatic experiences are turned into collectivity, according to this study. As a result, the two books under consideration, Iqbal Qazwini's Zubaida's Window and Betool Khedairi's A Sky so Close, are testimony tales that give witness to the patriarchal system's powers of war, sexual assault and seduction. Shoshana Felman and Dori Laub coined the term "bearing witness," which situates traumatic experiences within the fictional structure of a trauma novel that employs postmodern literary techniques and devices, encapsulating and documenting the components of women's traumatized collective consciousness. The research examines the proposed books that fall under the category of "trauma fiction," which brings up the subject of trauma poetics. As a result, the recommended books are trauma fiction that bear witness to and work through individual experiences through experimental being (techniques) in order to highlight the significance of women's suffering and the ways in which their memories deal with and absorb it.